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APA Style of Citation
 

PLEASE NOTE:  Following recommended patterns given in the Harbrace College Handbook 12th edition.


Basic Form:

  1. Author.  Give the author's last name and use initials for first and middle names.  For entries that contain more than one author, invert all names and put and ampersand (&) before the last author.

  2. Date.  Put the date in parentheses after the author's name.  By including the date near the beginning of the entry.

  3. Title.  Capitalize only the first word in titles and subtitles.  Do not capitalize other words (except for proper names that would be capitalized in other contexts). Separate the title and subtitle with a colon.

  4. Publication data.  Give only enough of the publisher's name so that it can be identified clearly.

  5. Note:  lines after the first line of the citation are indented.

Book by one author:

Steinman, B.  (1923).  Prisons as social structures.  Los Angeles:  Harcourt.
(More than one book by same author, list the works in order of the publication date, earliest first.  Repeat the author's name for each work.)

Books by two or more authors:

Watkins, D.G., & Williams, J.H.  (1990).  Mind, mood, and Genetics: A guide to the new biological psychiatry.  (2nd ed.).   New York:  Harper.

Journal Article Continuous Pagination:

Jones, M.F. (1998).  Death of the cellular structure and its effects on perception.  Psychological Reports, 60, 176-190.

Journal Article Separate Pagination:

Kawinski, Z.  (1992).  Moving on.  Psychologist, 123 (4), 23-41.
Insert the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number.

Magazine:

Simms, L.  (1987, July 18).  Immortality and Procreation.  Time,  pp. 34-36.

Newspaper:

Hymen, L.I. (1991, January 3).  Market fluctuations panic investors.  Wall Street Journal, P. B12 .

Work in Anthology:

Quigly, J.G.  (1992).  Cowboys never die.  Cowboy legends and other occurrences (pp. 231-240).  New York:  Gale.

Film:

Redford, R., & Markey, P. (Producers), & Redford, R. (Director).  (1992).  A river runs through it.  [Film].  New York:  Columbia Pictures.


PLEASE NOTE: Follow recommended patterns given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th edition, for indentation of items in a "Reference List."

Electronic Sources

Individual Works

Basic forms, commercial supplier, and using an Internet protocol:
Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date].

Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

Examples:
  • Oxford English dictionary computer file: On compact disc (2nd ed.), [CD-ROM]. (1992). Available: Oxford UP [1995, May 27].

  • Pritzker, T. J. (No date). An Early fragment from central Nepal [Online]. Available: http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html [1995, June 8].

    * Write "No date" when the electronic publication date is not available.
    * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

Parts of Works


Basic forms, commercial supplier, and using an Internet protocol:

Author/editor. (Year). Title. In Source (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date].

Author/editor. (Year). Title. In Source (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

Examples:
  • Bosnia and Hercegovina. (1995). In Academic American Encyclopedia [Online]. Available: Dow Jones News Retrieval Service/ENCYC [1995, June 5].

    * This is an article from an encyclopedia with no author given.

  • Daniel, R. T. (1995). The history of Western music. In Britannica online: Macropaedia [Online]. Available: http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g:DocF=macro/5004/45/0.html [1995, June 14].

    * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

    Journal Articles


    Basic forms, commercial supplier, and using an Internet protocol:

    Author. (Year). Title. Journal Title [Type of medium], volume(issue), paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

    Author. (Year). Title. Journal Title [Type of medium], volume(issue), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

    Examples:
    • Clark, J. K. (1993). Complications in academia: Sexual harassment and the law. Siecus Report [CD-ROM], 21(6), 6-10. Available: 1994 SIRS/SIRS 1993 School/Volume 4/Article 93A [1995, June 13].

    • Carriveau, K. L., Jr. (1995). [Review of the book Environmental hazards: Marine pollution]. Electronic Green Journal [Online], 2(1), 3 paragraphs. Available: gopher://gopher.uidaho.edu/11/UI_gopher/library/egj03/carriv01.html [1995, June 21].

      * This is a reference for a book review; brackets indicate title is supplied.
      * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (Gopher) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

    • Inada, K. (1995). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics [Online], 2, 9 paragraphs. Available: http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html [1995, June 21].

      * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

      Magazine Articles


      Basic forms, commercial supplier, and using an Internet protocol:

      Author. (Year, month day). Title. Magazine Title [Type of medium], volume (if given), paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

      Author. (Year, month day). Title. Magazine Title [Type of medium], volume (if given), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

      Examples:
      • Goodstein, C. (1991, September). Healers from the deep. American Health [CD-ROM], 60-64. Available: 1994 SIRS/SIRS 1992 Life Science/Article 08A [1995, June 13].

      • Viviano, F. (1995, May/June). The new Mafia order. Mother Jones Magazine [Online], 72 paragraphs. Available: http://www.mojones.com/MOTHER_JONES/MJ95/viviano.html [1995, July 17].

        * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

      Newspaper Articles


      Basic forms, commercial supplier, and using an Internet protocol:

      Author. (Year, month day). Title. Newspaper Title [Type of medium], paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

      Author. (Year, month day). Title. Newspaper Title [Type of medium], paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

      Examples:
      • Howell, V., & Carlton, B. (1993, August 29). Growing up tough: New generation fights for its life: Inner-city youths live by rule of vengeance. Birmingham News [CD-ROM], p. 1A(10 pp.). Available: 1994 SIRS/SIRS 1993 Youth/Volume 4/Article 56A [1995, July 16].
      • Johnson, T. (1994, December 5). Indigenous people are now more combative, organized. Miami Herald [Online], p. 29SA(22 paragraphs).Available: gopher://summit.fiu.edu/Miami Herald--Summit-Related Articles/12/05/95--Indigenous People Now More Combative, Organized [1995, July 16].

        * This reference gives beginning page and the number of paragraphs; this information is useful if one wishes to refer to material in text references.
        * When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

      Personal Electronic Communications (E-mail)


      Basic forms:

      Sender (Sender's E-mail address). (Year, Month day). Subject of Message. E-mail to recipient (Recipient's E-mail address)

      Examples:
      • Day, Martha (MDAY@sage.uvm.edu). (1995, July 30). Review of film -- Bad Lieutenant. E-mail to Xia Li (XLI@moose.uvm.edu).

 

Last Modified:  08/10/2008
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